Technological advancement has made our automobiles go electric. Our need to have an ease in transportation along with an emission free environment is rapidly increasing. Examples of some electric vehicles may include: electric buses, e-rickshaws, Electric Cars. Economical maintenance and efficient output have enhanced the usage of Electric Cars in India.
Electric Cars are becoming an attractive and efficient factor towards making the environment clean. This outlook is also enhancing the quality of air. With the fast-growing market, our economic opportunities are also increasing because of the make-in India approach by Indian government. The outlook is regarding the manufacture of equipment for Electric Cars in India including batteries and other specifications.
What is an Electric Car?
An electric car runs with a battery. We can charge the battery at any point of time. We use electric power to propel the car. Electric cars are very light to run because they have very few moving parts, ensuring high-level comfort. We can charge the battery of an electric car at any effective charging station or even at home.
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Types of Electric vehicles:
These are three types of electric vehicles. Let’s have a look at the following types:
BEV – Stands for Battery Electric Vehicles, or BEVs. Cars that function completely from an electric battery fall under BEV. The battery used is fully rechargeable. Grids are used to charge the batteries. It means the requirement is 100% electricity for running. Models of BEVs in India are: Hyundai Kona Electric, Tata Nexon EV, Mercedes-Benz EQC etc.
PHEV – Stands for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, or PHEVs. Cars that have both an engine and electric motor (combustion engine) to drive the car fall under the PHEV category. The electric battery is recharged from a plug and the batteries used are generally large. Examples of some models are: Audi A3 E-Tron • BMW 330e • BMWi8 • BMWx5 xdrive40e • Chevy Volt • Chrysler Pacifica • Fiat 500e • Ford C-Max Energi • Ford Fusion Energi • Hyundai Sonata.
Hybrid – Hybrid cars have an electric battery and a combustion engine. The electric battery is charged using the combustion engine. Hybrid cars have both a gas-powered engine and an electric motor to drive the car. All energy for the battery is acquired through rejuvenate braking to help the gasoline engine during acceleration. Examples of some models are Toyota Vellfire, MG Hector, Toyota Glanza, MG Hector Plus etc.
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Working principle of Electric Vehicles –
The electric vehicle runs with the help of an electric motor. This motor uses the energy stored in the batteries. Let us understand the working principle of electric vehicles in detail:
We first press the pedal of our electric vehicle. The in-built controller takes the electrical energy from the rechargeable batteries.
The electrical energy is then sent to the electric motor. The amount depends upon the level of pressure we apply.
The electric motor further converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Then, the rotation of the rotor (rotor of electric motor) occurs and this drives the wheels to turn.
With the turning of the wheels, the vehicle starts moving.
Where does the electricity come from for Electric cars?
Electric powers for Electric Cars in India are produced through grids connected to renewable sources. The sources basically include: solar panels, sources with a self-contained battery, generators that convert fuel to electricity, coal, natural gas, nuclear energy, wind energy, hydro energy.
India had proposed to add 175 GW of renewable energy from the year 2020. It is also achieving 40 percent of its electricity generation from non-fossil fuels.
Types of chargers in Electric Cars:
|Types of chargers||Input power|
|Type 1 AC Charger||3KW|
|Type 2 Charger (both AC and DC)||7.4 kW to 43 kW|
|CCS or Combined Charging System||50KW|
Types of charging in Electric Vehicle –
We can charge electric cars in India in the following ways:
Charging normally – The process includes charging up at home, at work. Generally, it uses a port installed at home/workplace or from a charging station.
Lithium Batteries – The basic use of Lithium- ion batteries is to store energy and power the motor that drives the car. The batteries are chemically similar to the ones found in cell phones and laptops.
Quick2Charge: The process includes innovative charging technology. Cars get charged completely in just 60 minutes.
Charging stations – Many companies including startups have installed charging stations in housing societies across the cities. The stations have charging ports and sockets with the capacity of at least 3.3 kW. Startups invest in the cities for installing charging stations in case of no access to charge at home. Investors choose the areas like petrol pumps or any other areas of operation especially in the highways.
Portable Batteries – Many companies provide portable batteries which are easy to charge and use. Designing of batteries is done in such a way that they can last during uneven environmental conditions.
Battery swapping stations – We can swap a drained battery for a completely charged battery in a matter of time. Basic idea is to provide us with an easy and comfortable way to charge cars.
Benefits of using Electric Cars over conventional IC (Internal Combustion) engine cars:
- Economically maintainable – Electric Cars in India have low maintenance costs because of fewer moving parts in comparison with diesel cars. This makes it cheaper for us to maintain. This also ensures higher efficiency.
- Environment Friendly – Electric Cars do not emit harmful pollutants unlike the other IC engine cars. It is analyzed that using Electric Cars in India can reduce annual GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions by one billion tonnes. It lowers the carbon emissions by one billion tonnes a year. Opting for Electric Cars can actually reduce air pollution which causes so many respiratory diseases.
- Noise pollution control – Electric Cars tend to have few moving parts. The car thus makes no or very less sound as compared to conventional IC engine cars. Everything is automatic and electric which further reduces noise pollution. Hence, many cities with huge noise pollution are shifting towards Electric Cars.
- Easily chargeable at home and work stations – For IC engine cars, we make long queues at petrol pumps for filling our cars. On the other hand, Electric Cars can be easily charged at home. It can be done by just plugging in the charger in the installed port. The Electric Car then runs efficiently for hours. Portable batteries are also available for quick charging and longer use. If we are away from home, we can have access to the charging stations installed at various places in the societies. Charging stations are installed anywhere at the place of operation.
- Convenience – With no gears and fewer moving parts, Electric Cars are very light to use. We can easily run and use such cars comfortably.
- Large storage options – Due to no front gear lever, the front section of the car is spacious, along with other sections. Batteries and motors take less space as compared to the engines of diesel or gasoline-oriented cars.
- Benefits from government – We as owners of Electric Cars can claim income tax deduction up to Rs 1.5 Lakhs under Section 80 EEB. There are many private lanes especially designed for Electric Cars along with tax credits.
Electric cars Vs Hydrogen cars –
- Electric cars run with the energy driven from the rechargeable batteries Whereas, Hydrogen cars run with the energy driven from a generator using hydrogen.
- You can fill up a hydrogen car in a few minutes with a fuel pump unlike an electric car where the battery takes longer time for charging.
Stocks for Electric cars in India –
Following are the stocks for Electric cars in India:
- Tata Motors
- Mahindra & Mahindra
- Maruti Suzuki
- Hero Motorcorp
Electric cars mileage per charge –
Mileage per charge for Electric cars has increased in India in the recent years. Example, mileage per charge of Kona electric is 452kms, tata nexon EV gives 312kms. Every model has its own mileage and charging capabilities.
Electric cars Vs Diesel cars –
- Electric cars run with a battery which is rechargeable Whereas, Diesel cars run with the help of an engine.
- Electric cars emit less pollutants in the environment unlike the diesel cars which emits harmful greenhouse pollutants.
- Electric cars take time to get charged whereas diesel cars get filled up in no time with a fuel pump.
Pros and Cons of using electric cars –
- Electric cars are environment friendly as they do not emit harmful pollutants along with less or no noise pollution.
- Electric cars are very light and convenient to use because of fewer moving parts.
- It is hard to find charging stations and charging normally takes time.
- Electric cars provides less range and are usually expensive.
An overview of some Electric Cars in India:
|Price above ₹10 Lakhs||Model||Range/full charge||Charging (Min/Hours)|
|₹23.79- 24.03 Lakh||Hyundai Kona Electric||452 kms||AC charging approx 6h 10min and DC charging approx.|
|₹13.99-16.85 Lakh||TATA NEXON EV||312 kms||60 Min (0-80%)|
|₹21.00-24.18 Lakh||MG ZS EV||419 kms||6-8hours|
|₹12.93 Lakh||Mahindra E Verito D4||110 km||11hours 30min (100%) / Fast charging 1h30 min (80%)|
|Price below ₹10 Lakhs||Model||Electric Range/full charge||Charging (Min/Hours)|
|₹9.57 Lakh||Mahindra e2o Plus P6||110 kms||6 hours|
|₹9.44 Lakh||Tata Tigor EV XE+||213 kms||2 hrs (Fast Charge)|
|₹8.81 Lakh||Mahindra e2o Plus||110-140 kms||9 hrs|
|₹10.58-10.89 Lakh||TATA TIGOR EV||213 kms||2 hrs (Fast Charge)|
Upcoming Electric Cars in India –
|Name of the upcoming Electric Cars||Expected Launch Date||Expected Price|
|Nissan Note e Power||Aug 15, 2021||Rs. 20.00 Lakh*|
|Volvo XC40 Recharge||Oct 15, 2021||Rs. 60.00 Lakh*|
|Mercedes-Benz EQA||Oct 15, 2021||Rs. 60.00 Lakh*|
|Hyundai Kona Electric (2021)||Aug 10, 2021||Rs. 23.75 Lakh*|
|Tata Altroz EV||March 2022||RS. 14.00 Lakh|
With the increment in the advancement of technology, benefits to the environment, economic opportunities, the demand for Electric Cars in India is increasing rapidly. We are gradually heading towards a future which would be electric as we are bound to lose on fossil fuels. More focus must be given on charging infrastructure, investments in making in India Electric Cars by supporting the startups too.
It depends upon the battery size. In general, an average of 15 units of electricity is consumed per day to charge Electric Cars, the charging price would be around INR 75 per day based on the average battery size of 30 kWh.
Top five cheapest Electric Cars in India are: Strom Motors R3, Hyundai Kona Electric SUV, Tata Nexon EV, Mahindra e-Verito, Tata Tigor EV, MG ZS EV.
Green vehicles also run-on electricity and are environment friendly, so we can in some way include a green vehicle under Electric Cars in India.
Electric Cars are made with a specific climate control system. This can adjust the temperature of the battery according to the weather/temperature of the climate. Thus the battery packs will be safe.
Yes, we can have Strom Motors R3 in India which costs RS. 4.50 Lakhs. However, there is no information/updates on the production of upcoming Electric Cars at 5 lac range.
The cost is the same if we charge at home or at a public charging station.
Yes, hydrogen cars are environment friendly because they give no emissions at the tailpipe and just uses water. Also, that they emit less greenhouse pollutants.
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